written by Ted Schettler, MD, MPH
An unprecedented alliance of leading scientists, health professionals, and children’s health advocates has come together to publish a consensus statement concluding that scientific evidence supports a causal link between exposures to toxic chemicals in food, air and everyday products and children’s risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. The alliance, known as Project TENDR, is calling for immediate action to significantly reduce exposures to toxic chemicals to protect brain development for today’s and tomorrow’s children.
Neurodevelopmental disorders include intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficits, hyperactivity, other maladaptive behaviors, and learning disabilities. Project TENDR’s consensus statement is available on the Project TENDR website.
written by Nancy Hepp, MS
Research and Communications Specialist
Phthalates are a group of chemicals used to soften and increase the flexibility of plastic and vinyl; some are also used in cosmetics and personal care products. Six phthalates are currently banned from use in many products for children due to evidence of reproductive and neurodevelopmental harm. A Time Magazine article, These plastic chemicals may be just as dangerous as what they replace, reported that as research about one particular phthalate, DEHP, showed it to be a probable human carcinogen and associated with other health effects, manufacturers began to replace it with DINP and DIDP, two other phthalates. Two recent studies have shown a connection between adverse effects from these two replacement chemicals. The first study links high blood pressure in children 6-19 years old and the presence of DINP and DIDP in urine. The second study, from the same researchers, found a link between the replacement phthalates in urine and insulin resistance in adolescents 12-19 years old. Neither study was designed to determine if the phthalates caused the conditions.
written by Elise Miller, EdM
This past week something rather remarkable happened: First, the New York Times published two major investigative pieces on the pervasive exploitation and occupational health hazards experienced by workers in the nail salon industry. And then the really astonishing part—Governor Cuomo of New York issued emergency measures two days later to combat the horrendous inequities and toxic chemical exposures that manicurists face. Rarely do we see such swift, decisive government action in response to reports highlighting environmental and social injustices—and rarely do we see the convergence of evidence-based science, skilled health advocacy, first-rate journalism, and responsive government result in such an immediate, positive outcome. Of course it will take much longer yet for large scale changes that fully protect these workers to take place, but this is an impressive first step.
written by Sarah Howard
Coordinator of the Diabetes and Obesity Spectrum Working Group
Over the past 4 days there have been two IOM workshop meetings on obesity; here’s a brief update.
The first was last Thursday/Friday on developmental exposures and obesity (mostly nutrition), and the second was Monday/Tuesday on the environment and obesity (at NIEHS). The slides and presentations of these workshops will be posted online. I would recommend these talks, they were all very informative.
Exposures to a wide variety of environmental factors—from chemicals to lack of sleep to microbiome to inflammation to viruses to antibiotics to nutrition to famine to maternal BMI to hormones to paternal factors to beta cell hypersecretion to artificial sweeteners to fructose—are linked to a higher (or sometimes lower) risk of obesity later in life, especially if exposure occurs during development (or possibly during other vulnerable periods, such as puberty). Obesogens may make it harder to lose weight and easier to gain weight, increasing our susceptibility to obesity.
We present CHE’s picks of the most important environmental health stories from the last quarter of 2014.
- Air pollution and autism
A growing body of evidence implicates air toxics as potential contributors to autism spectrum disorders, with four studies published in rapid succession this quarter:
- Environmental chemical exposures and autism spectrum disorders: a review of the epidemiological evidence.
- University of Pittsburgh study correlates autism with air pollution: Preliminary results from the study show that children with autism spectrum disorders were more likely to have been exposed to higher levels of certain air toxics during their mothers’ pregnancies and their first two years of life compared with children without the condition. The study: The association of national air toxics assessment exposures and the risk of childhood autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.
- Air pollution exposure in pregnancy linked to autism in study: Women who are exposed to high levels of air pollution during their third trimester of pregnancy may be twice as likely to have an autistic child. The study: Autism spectrum disorder and particulate matter air pollution before, during, and after pregnancy: a nested case–control analysis within the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort.
- Fourth study finds traffic pollution may cause autism: The more traffic pollution a pregnant woman is exposed to — especially during her third trimester — the greater chance her child will develop autism. The study: In utero exposure to toxic air pollutants and risk of childhood autism.
- Phthalates’ effects on health
A proposed rule by the Consumer Product Safety Commission was mandated by the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 and is now open for public comment: Prohibition of children’s toys and child care articles containing specified phthalates. Research continues to bring fuller understanding of the potential for harm from several phthalates:
- Prenatal exposure to household chemical linked to reduced IQ, study says: Children who were exposed in utero to high levels of phthalates went on to have lower IQ levels than their peers who were exposed to lower levels, a new study from the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University found. The study: Persistent associations between maternal prenatal exposure to phthalates on child IQ at age 7 years.
- A birth cohort study to investigate the association between prenatal phthalate and bisphenol A exposures and fetal markers of metabolic dysfunction: Associations between maternal exposure to chemicals and markers of metabolic function appear potentially to be sex specific.
- Plastics chemical linked to changes in boys’ genitals: Boys exposed in the womb to high levels of a chemical found in vinyl products are born with slightly altered genital development, according to research published today. The study of nearly 200 Swedish babies is the first to link the chemical di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) to changes in the development of the human male reproductive tract. The study: Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys.
- How household plastics could ruin your sex life: Phthalates are being linked to, among other things, a decrease in libido in women. The study: Environmental exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate is associated with low interest in sexual activity in premenopausal women.
- Sugar and other sweeteners
The impact of sugar and other sweeteners on health has been getting more attention lately. In addition to the launch of SugarScience, a new website touted as an authoritative source for evidence-based, scientific information about sugar and its impact on health, the nation’s first soda tax passed in Berkeley, California. Proponents of the tax say it will curb the consumption of sodas, energy drinks and sweetened teas which are contributing to the country’s obesity epidemic and Type 2 diabetes. Meanwhile, research is uncovering health effects of sugar and other sweeteners that go beyond obesity and diabetes:
- This is your teenager’s brain on soda: Researchers at the University of Southern California recently published a study showing a connection between sugar consumption and memory problems. The study: Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.
- Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.
- Soda and cell aging: associations between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and leukocyte telomere length in healthy adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.
- Climate change
The biggest climate story this quarter was that the US and China announced important new actions to reduce carbon pollution. The Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change also reiterated that the situation requires immediate and substantial action or the Earth will face “further warming and long-lasting changes in all components of the climate system, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems.” While the connection to human health is not always mentioned in reports on climate change, the health impacts are substantial. For example, in Chemically mediated behavior of recruiting corals and fishes: a tipping point that may limit reef recovery, there’s an understated repercussion of the loss of reefs: devastating impacts on sources of food, and especially protein, for much of the world’s human population. Other stories highlighting other aspects of climate change include these:
- From bar fights to wars, climate change will make us more violent: The hotter it gets, the more likely we are to kill each other. Murder rates go up in heat waves; in some countries, civil war is also more likely. In training exercises in hot weather, police are more likely to pull out a gun and fire. The paper: Climate and conflict.
- Climate change affects national security: After close examination of the science, the Military Advisory Board, a group of 16 retired flag-level officers, conclude that, “The national security risks of projected climate change are as serious as any challenges we have faced.”
- NY health and environmental chiefs: no to fracking
New York Governor Andrew Cuomo’s administration has moved to prohibit fracking in the state, citing unresolved health issues and dubious economic benefits of the widely used gas-drilling technique. This is the first US state to take such a stand. The report from the New York State Department of Health: A Public Health Review of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing for Shale Gas Development and another recent report: Warning Signs: Toxic Air Pollution Identified at Oil and Gas Sites.
- BPA and its replacements
While more research mounts on health concerns from exposure to BPA, the Food and Drug Administration maintains that “the available information continues to support the safety of BPA for the currently approved uses in food containers and packaging”, as reported in Bisphenol A is safe for approved uses in food containers, packaging, FDA says. In a conflicting decision, a California court upheld the state scientists’ finding that BPA is known to cause reproductive health problems: Court upholds BPA health warning. Recent research on BPA and replacements include these studies:
- Kids exposed to BPA before birth at risk of wheeze: study: Young kids who were exposed to Bisphenol A before birth are more likely than others to have a wheeze before age five, according to a new study that found no connection to BPA exposure after birth.The study: Bisphenol A exposure and the development of wheeze and lung function in children through age 5 years.
- Prenatal bisphenol A exposure and maternally reported behavior in boys and girls: These results suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA may be related to increased behavior problems in school age boys, but not girls.
- The leaching of BPA into skin from cash receipts is enhanced by using sanitizers: Touching cash register receipts while using sanitizers can dramatically increase your body’s absorption of BPA, researchers report. The study: Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).
- BPA exposure by infants may increase later risk of food intolerance: This research involving rats suggests that early life exposure at a dose significantly below the current human safety limit set by the FDA affects developing immune systems, predisposing offspring to food intolerance in adulthood. The study: Food intolerance at adulthood after perinatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A.
- That takeout coffee cup may be messing with your hormones: A new study suggests that whole classes of BPA-free plastics — including the kind in styrofoam — release estrogenic chemicals. The study: Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products.
- New study charts the fate of chemicals affecting health and the environment
In a new study, Rolf Halden, PhD, a researcher at Arizona State University’s Biodesign Institute, examines the trajectory of chemicals appearing as emergent threats to human or environmental health. His research offers a highly instructive analysis of how long it takes chemicals of concern to become recognized and acted on — and why. The review: Epistemology of contaminants of emerging concern and literature meta-analysis.
- 16 major companies and agencies say no to chemical flame retardants
The Center for Environmental Health, which helped encourage a rewrite of California’s regulations regarding safety standards in furniture manufacturing, announced in mid December that 16 major furniture manufacturers have now “sworn off” chemical flame retardants. This is a prime example of how environmental health science can be effectively translated into regulations that better protect health. The CEH press release including the list: Major producers eliminating flame retardant chemicals as major buyers are demanding flame retardant-free furniture.
- National Institutes of Health ends longitudinal children’s study
The US National Institutes of Health has cancelled its plan for an ambitious, multi-decade study of environmental influences on children’s health known as the National Children’s Study, agency director Francis Collins announced on December 12th. The study was originally approved by a bipartisan Congress in 2000 but was fraught with scientific and political challenges over the last 14 years. See also an analysis: How the US government botched its multibillion-dollar plan to beat childhood disease.
- Theo Colborn: Honoring the work of an environmental health giant
Theo Colborn, PhD, passed away on December 14th at age 87, leaving an extraordinary legacy of careful and determined environmental health research and advocacy. She was particularly recognized for her seminal work on endocrine disrupting chemicals and fracking.
- A brief biography by Elizabeth Grossman.
- Theo’s CV.
- Comments and stories from those who knew Theo.
- Remembering the genius who got BPA out of your water bottles, and so much more, one of many media reports on Theo’s death.
written by Sarah Howard
CHE Diabetes-Obesity Spectrum Working Group Coordinator
A review article on prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupters and obesity was just published. Overall, it found that, “For certain EDCs, early life exposure may be associated with weight homeostasis later in life, however not necessarily in an obesogenic direction.” The review includes both human and laboratory evidence (19 studies) published since 1995. (The review did not include studies on BPA.) Here are their findings for the chemical classes included:
Organotins are well-documented obesogens in laboratory studies. Human studies, however, are not available. Prenatal exposure to tributyltin causes adioposity in exposed mice, and these effects may be transmitted to future generations as well.
written by Ted Schettler, MD, MPH
Science Director for CHE and the Science and Environmental Health Network
Phthalates are a family of chemicals used in many consumer products, mainly as softeners of plastics and sometimes as solvents. As a result, human exposures are ubiquitous. In recent years, many laboratory and epidemiologic studies have shown that some phthalates can cause a variety of adverse health effects. In response, the 2008 Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) permanently banned three phthalates and temporarily banned three additional phthalates from use in children’s toys and child care products while calling for an expert scientific review of phthalate-related risks.
A panel of scientists assembled as members of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) and charged with assessing the safety of using phthalates or six alternative chemicals in children’s toys and child care articles has completed their review and released a report. They recommended that current bans on four phthalates should be permanent, four additional phthalates should be banned, and current bans on two should be lifted. Further, because of inadequate safety information, the panels says governmental agencies should obtain necessary exposure and hazard data for other phthalates and alternatives in order to assess health risks, as they are charged and authorized to do.
Coordinator of CHE’s Diabetes and Obesity Spectrum Working Group
The first prospective study on diabetes in relation to BPA or phthalates has just been published (ahead of print), in Environmental Health Perspectives. The results suggest that BPA and phthalate exposures may be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes among middle-aged women, but not older women. The association between BPA and phthalates in younger but not older women may be due to menopausal status (although chance cannot be ruled out).
The study analyzed levels of BPA and eight phthalates in two urine samples over 1-3 years from U.S. women in the Nurses’ Health Study I (average age 66) and II (average age 46). The younger women had higher levels of BPA and phthalates than the older women, yet these differences did not explain the findings.
Because experimental data suggests that BPA interferes with the function of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells by activating estrogen receptors, the authors hypothesized that any associations between BPA and diabetes would be stronger in pre-menopausal women than post-menopausal women. Indeed, the association between BPA and diabetes shows a clear linear trend in pre-menopausal women, but there is no association in post-menopausal women. And, the association between BPA and diabetes was stronger in women who developed diabetes at a younger age (under 55). These interesting findings should be examined in other cohorts.
Sun Q, Cornelis MC, Townsend MK, Tobias DK, Eliassen AH, Franke AA, Hauser R, Hu FB. 2014. Association of Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Metabolites with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Investigation in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII Cohorts. Environ.Health Perspect. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307201/
Coordinator of CHE’s Diabetes-Obesity Spectrum Working Group
Two important studies have been published this month on chemical exposures that cause obesity in subsequent generations of rodents, long after the exposure ends. Until now, no prior studies on transgenerational obesogen exposures had been published. The results are alarming.
In the first study, pregnant mice (F0 generation) were exposed to low doses of the known obesogen tributyltin (TBT) and bred for 3 generations (up to the F3 generation). Thus, the F0 generation was exposed directly, the F1 generation exposed in the womb, the F2 generationsl could have been primordially exposed as germ cells in the developing fetus, and the F3 generation was not exposed directly (changes in the F3 generation are considered truly transgenerational). The TBT exposure had obesity-promoting effects on fat deposition on the F1 through the F3 generation, including increasing the number of fat cells, fat cell size, fatty tissue weights, and fatty livers (similar to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans). Interestingly, TBT exposure reprogrammed stem cells to develop into fat cells instead of bone cells.
The study, entitled “Transgenerational inheritance of increased fat depot size, stem cell reprogramming, and hepatic steatosis elicited by prenatal obesogen tributyltin in mice”, was written by Raquel Chamorro-García, Margaret Sahu, Rachelle J. Abbey, Jhyme Laude, Nhieu Pham, and Bruce Blumberg, of the University of California, Irvine.
Coordinator of the CHE Diabetes-Obesity Spectrum Working Group
If you saw the news on Friday the 13th of April, you may have seen mention of a new study on phthalates and diabetes (see WebMD, the Huffington Post and Fox News.
The actual study is on PubMed, with a statement by lead author Dr. Monica Lind at Uppsala University.
What did Dr. Lind and her colleagues find? That three of the four phthalate metabolites they measured were associated with diabetes in elderly Swedish adults—even after adjusting for obesity, smoking, exercise, and other factors linked to diabetes. People with higher phthalate metabolite levels had about twice the risk of diabetes as those with lower levels. In this study, the phthalate metabolites linked to diabetes included MMP, MEP, and MiBP, all of which are metabolites of phthalates used in personal care products. Taking the research one step farther, the authors found that MMP and MEP were related to insulin resistance, while MiBP was related to poor insulin secretion. (The phthalate MEHP, a breakdown product of the common plasticizer DEHP, was not related to diabetes or the other health effects). These four phthalate metabolites were detected in almost all study participants.