Phthalates are a group of chemicals used to soften and increase the flexibility of plastic and vinyl; some are also used in cosmetics and personal care products. Six phthalates are currently banned from use in many products for children due to evidence of reproductive and neurodevelopmental harm. A Time Magazine article, These plastic chemicals may be just as dangerous as what they replace, reported that as research about one particular phthalate, DEHP, showed it to be a probable human carcinogen and associated with other health effects, manufacturers began to replace it with DINP and DIDP, two other phthalates. Two recent studies have shown a connection between adverse effects from these two replacement chemicals. The first study links high blood pressure in children 6-19 years old and the presence of DINP and DIDP in urine. The second study, from the same researchers, found a link between the replacement phthalates in urine and insulin resistance in adolescents 12-19 years old. Neither study was designed to determine if the phthalates caused the conditions.